Tahap-tahap terjadinya Karies Gigi (Dental Caries)Juni 26, 2008 pada 5:21 am | Ditulis dalam gigi dan mulut | 18 Komentar
Kaitkata: dental health
Orang lebih banyak mengenal karies gigi dengan gigi bolong. Gigi termasuk salah satu bagian terkeras dalam tubuh manusia, tapi mengapa gigi bisa karies? Apa penyebabnya?
DENTAL CARIES CIRCLES
OF INFECTIOUS DISEASE
The three stages of cavities are
infection, demineralization and cavitation.*
THE CAUSES OF DENTAL CARIES – PATHOBIOLOGY
the mouth is the beginning of the digestive system
chewing (masticating) not only grinds foods but degrades it with enzymes in the saliva
saliva is a complex mixture of salts, carbohydrates, and enzymes
some the enzymes (amylases) break down carbohydrates into sugars
the mouth is teeming with bacteria that eat these sugars
although there are many bacteria in the mouth there are really only a few species of bacteria
each bacterial species has a unique habitat in the mouth
mainly Streptococci are found in the mouth
Streptococcus salivarius lives on the upper tongue
Streptococcus sanguis lives on the teeth
Streptoccocus mitis lives on the inner cheek
Streptococcus mutans live on the teeth
The Streptococci are gram positive (and have a sticky cell wall) and facultative anaerobes
facultative organisms can live in both aerobic and anaerobic environments
Lactobacilli and Actinomyces are also important oral microflora
Illustrations: How a Tooth Decays
1. Healthy Tooth
Enamel is the hard outer crystal-like layer. Dentin is the softer layer beneath the enamel. The pulp chamber contains nerves and blood vessels. It is considered the living part of the tooth.
2. White Spots
Bacteria that are exposed to sugars or carbohydrates can make acid. The acid attacks the crystal-like substance in the tooth’s outer surface. This process is known as demineralization. The first sign of this is a chalky white spot. At this stage, the decay process can be reversed.
3. Enamel Decay
Demineralization continues. Enamel starts to break down. Once the enamel surface is broken, the tooth can no longer repair itself. The cavity has to be cleaned and restored by a dentist.
4. Dentin Decay
The decay reaches into the dentin, where it can spread and undermine the enamel.
5. Pulp Involvement
If decay is left untreated, it will reach the tooth’s pulp. This is where the tooth’s nerves and blood vessels are found. The pulp becomes infected. An abscess (swelling) or a fistula (opening to the surface of the gum) can form in the soft tissues.
Simple Steps designer Lynda Buchhalter,www.simplestepsdental