Tahap-tahap terjadinya Karies Gigi (Dental Caries)

Juni 26, 2008 pukul 5:21 am | Ditulis dalam gigi dan mulut | 18 Komentar
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Orang lebih banyak mengenal karies gigi dengan gigi bolong. Gigi termasuk salah satu bagian terkeras dalam tubuh manusia, tapi mengapa gigi bisa karies? Apa penyebabnya?

DENTAL CARIES CIRCLES
OF INFECTIOUS DISEASE

The three stages of cavities are
infection, demineralization and cavitation.*

THE CAUSES OF DENTAL CARIES – PATHOBIOLOGY


Decay Potential of Certain Foods

the mouth is the beginning of the digestive system
chewing (masticating) not only grinds foods but degrades it with enzymes in the saliva
saliva is a complex mixture of salts, carbohydrates, and enzymes
some the enzymes (amylases) break down carbohydrates into sugars
the mouth is teeming with bacteria that eat these sugars
although there are many bacteria in the mouth there are really only a few species of bacteria

each bacterial species has a unique habitat in the mouth

mainly Streptococci are found in the mouth
Streptococcus salivarius lives on the upper tongue
Streptococcus sanguis lives on the teeth
Streptoccocus mitis lives on the inner cheek
Streptococcus mutans live on the teeth
The Streptococci are gram positive (and have a sticky cell wall) and facultative anaerobes
facultative organisms can live in both aerobic and anaerobic environments
Lactobacilli and Actinomyces are also important oral microflora

Illustrations: How a Tooth Decays

1. Healthy Tooth

Enamel is the hard outer crystal-like layer. Dentin is the softer layer beneath the enamel. The pulp chamber contains nerves and blood vessels. It is considered the living part of the tooth.

Illustration showing a healthy tooth

2. White Spots

Bacteria that are exposed to sugars or carbohydrates can make acid. The acid attacks the crystal-like substance in the tooth’s outer surface. This process is known as demineralization. The first sign of this is a chalky white spot. At this stage, the decay process can be reversed.

Illustration showing a white spot on a tooth - the first step in tooth  decay.

3. Enamel Decay

Demineralization continues. Enamel starts to break down. Once the enamel surface is broken, the tooth can no longer repair itself. The cavity has to be cleaned and restored by a dentist.

Illustration showing decay in the outer layer of the tooth, called the enamel

4. Dentin Decay

The decay reaches into the dentin, where it can spread and undermine the enamel.

Illustration showing decay reaching the inside tooth layer called the dentin

5. Pulp Involvement

If decay is left untreated, it will reach the tooth’s pulp. This is where the tooth’s nerves and blood vessels are found. The pulp becomes infected. An abscess (swelling) or a fistula (opening to the surface of the gum) can form in the soft tissues.

Illustration showing decay reaching the tooth's pulp, which contains nerves and blood vessels

Simple Steps designer Lynda Buchhalter,www.simplestepsdental

www.rumahsorgaku.wordpress.com

Stages of carie development

http://webs.wichita.edu/mschneegurt/biol103/lecture22/carie_development.gif

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18 Komentar »

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  1. mengenai caries gigi ada gak ya yang bahasa indonesia.

  2. ada, mba. Banyak sekali, apalagi yang memang disediakan untuk studi bidang kedokteran gigi. Baik buku atau jurnal dll.
    Saya sempat googling sebentar (tapi maaf belum mencermati masing-masing isi artikelnya) antara lain disini mba:
    0. http://rumahkusorgaku.multiply.com/journal/item/62 (ini blog saya mba ^-^)
    1. http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karies_gigi
    2. http://www.myhealth.gov.my/myhealth/bm/remaja_content.jsp?lang=remaja&sub=0&bhs=may&storyid=1186620018371
    3. http://kesehatangigi.blogspot.com/2008/01/kariesgigi-berlubang.html

    semoga bisa membantu.

  3. saya minta informasi mengenai karang gigi dunk.. apa ya bedanya karang gigi dan caries gigi? berbahaya mana di antara keduanya? bagaimana cara untuk merawat gigi dari karang gigi maupun caries gigi? terimakasih…

    • Mba Intan,
      Karang gigi merupakan mineralisasi dari plak . Penyebab: accumulates at the base of a living plaque deposit and is attached to the surface of the tooth. The mineral is ultimately derived from the saliva.
      Karies gigi :a disease where bacterial processes damage hard tooth structure (enamel, dentin and cementum). These tissues progressively break down, producing dental cavities (holes in the teeth). If left untreated, the disease can lead to pain, tooth loss, infection, and, in severe cases, death.

      untuk pencegahan
      1. Karies gigi: bisa di baca antara lain di: (http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karies_gigi).
      2. Karang gigi (dental calculus):
      In order to prevent dental calculus, you have to eliminate its source: dental plaque. Here are some tips to get you started:
      - Avoid sugary snacks — Healthy eating will minimize the production of dental plaque.

      -Get a checkup — A dental exam and cleaning will remove dental calculus to better prepare your mouth for an at-home care program. Continue seeing your dentist at least twice a year to keep dental calculus buildup in control.

      - Practice excellent oral hygiene — Brush at least twice daily, and floss at least once daily. If you can, brush after every meal to keep dental plaque and dental tartar from forming.

      Be sure you’re brushing properly — ask a dental professional for oral hygiene tips. And if it’s been awhile since you’ve last seen a dentist, it’s time to make an appointment. The longer you wait to have dental calculus removed, the worse your dental problems can get!

      Semoga membantu.
      Terima kasih kembali.

  4. hal yg sederhana ternyata banyak dikunjungi, semoga drg juga spt itu yaitu kelihatannya biasa saja tp sgt dibutuhkan.

  5. mba
    ada ngk y situs tentang mata kuliah kedokteran atau keperawatan gigi?

    • belum pernah browsing,dik..
      silahkan coba saja, maaf ya, tidak bisa membantu.

  6. mas,,,apa y nama penyakit yang di sebabkan oleh bakteri stapylococcuc mitis terutama pada mulut… klau bisa dengan gambar penyakitna yg ada pada gi

    • Santy sebaiknya browsing sendiri, agar pemahamannya lebih baik tentang hal ini. Saya sdh coba, saya temukan jawabannya (ada),tp di sumber yang terpisah,namun saling melengkapi. tabel, patogenesis dan Gambar jg ada. pakai keyword bahasa inggris. Kalo sulit,tanya saja ke dosennya:)
      ok,selamat ,mencari.
      maaf,ya, tidak bs membantu.

  7. ak pkai braces…tapi ader 2 batang gigi yg rosakl…cm ner ni???

    • Orang yang guna braces kena pergi jumpa dentist pada masa-masa yang ditentukan. Sebab dentist selalu akan tengok result apa yang dentist buat kerja pada tiap-tiap masa sampai rawatan braces selesai. Selain tu dentist akan periksa kalau ada gigi atau gum/gusi yang tak sihat. Harusnya dentits itu pulak yang akan melakukan treatment.
      Jika dentits tu tak lakukan pemeriksaan general teeth, baiknya patient minta agar dentits lakukan check kesihatan gigi. Minta pula dentits tu buat treatment.
      boleh paham,kan?terima kasih

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