Immunisasi di Jepang

Agustus 30, 2008 pukul 10:57 am | Ditulis dalam Jepang dalam suatu episode, kesehatan | 2 Komentar
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Segera setelah Anda melapor ke kantor kecamatan tentang keberadaan dan status bayi baik/anak usia imunisasi,  setelah melahirkan atau bayi yang baru datang di Jepang, akan Anda akan memperoleh buku imunisasi Vaccination Handbook (a book of preliminary medical sheets), “Yobo Sesshu To Kodomo No Kenkou(Preventive Vaccination and Children’s Health)” atau  atau semisalnya dengan dikirim melalui pos. Bersama dengan itu pula disertakan blanko yang harus diisi oleh dokter anak (pediatric) di wilayah Anda kemudian dikirim kembali ke kantor kecamatan. Untuk selanjutnya kantor kecamatan akan mengirim juga jadwal dan tempat dan perihal lain yang berhubungan dengan perkembangan dan kesehatan putera Anda., termasuk dlam hal ini jadwal imunisasi.

Imunisasi biasanya diselenggarakan di 3 tempat antara lain di health care center, klinik/rumah sakit, temapat lain yang ditunjuk (biasanya untuk jenis imunisasi massal ,misalnya polio). Imunisasi kecuali Japanese enchepalitis , tidak dipungut biaya atau gratis.  Jangan lupa membawa: boshi  techo, asuransi .

Sedangkan jenis imunisasinya ada 2 jenis yaitu imunisasi regular yang diselenggarakan oleh pemerintah dan optional yang ditentukan oleh orang tua sendiri bila menghendaki,.

Jadwal imunisasinya sebagai berkut (th 2008):

Schedule and Types of Vaccination
Vaccine Target age group Vaccination Site Schedule and Price Frequency and Intervals
BCG
3months to 6months old
Designated Clinic
year-round
Once.
Polio
3months to 7and half yrs.
City Hall, Main Office
May, September
Twice/Spring and Fall     (6months intervals)
DPT        (Diphtheria, whooping cough, tetanus)
3months to 7and half yrs.
Designated Clinic
year-round
1st stage: 3 times at 3-8week intervals.
(Booster) One time 12-18 months after the third injection.
DT             (Diphtheria and tetanus)
6th grade
City hall, Main Office
July and August
2nd stage: once.
MR (Measles & Rubella)
  • 1st stage: 1-2 years old.
  • 2nd stage: Before entering elementary school
Designated Clinic
year-round
  • 1st stage: once
  • 2nd Stage: once
  • Child who already had measles or rubella cannot receive vaccine shot.
Measles
1yr to 7 and half yrs old
Designated Clinic
year-round
Once (If child is eligible to receive MR, get MR shot)
Rubella
1yr to 7 and half yrs old
Designated Clinic
year-round
Once.
Japanese encephalitis
3yrs old
City Hospital or Health Center
April to June ¥1000/shot
1st stage: 2 times at 1-4 week interval.
4yrs old
Booster: One time year after the last injection.
4th grade
2nd stage: once.

*Vaccination of Japanese encephalitis: Child who has not completed the 1st stage vaccination (3 shots) by 4 years old, child could receive the shot until he/she turns 7 and half years old.

Sebelum dilakukan imunisasi

General Cautions Before Having Vaccination
(1) On the day of vaccination, carefully check your child’s health condition to make sure that everything is normal. When your child feels ill, the decision of whether to have vaccination or not should be made after consulting with a doctor.
(2) Carefully read through the leaflet “Yobo Sesshu To Kodomo No Kenko(Vaccinations and Children’s Health)” for the vaccinations that you are planning to have your child take in order to understand their necessity and possible side effects. You can consult with doctors at vaccination sites if you have any questions.
(3) Be sure to bring your Maternal and Child Health Handbook.
(4) It is very important that you fill up a preliminary medical sheet completely and accurately so that doctors can check your child’s health condition properly before vaccinations.
(5) Make sure that a parent or guardian who knows your child very well will take him or her to the vaccination site.
Cannot Take Vaccination “If and When …”
(1) a child has a fever( 37.5 and over)
(2) a child has a serious acute disease(a child is taking medication for an acute disease)
(3) a child has become anaphylactic with (allergic to) the same vaccination or with any ingredient included.
(4) In case of a BCG vaccination, a child has/ had keloid when s/he had a vaccination or an external injury.
(5) In case of a BCG vaccination, a child has/ had tuberculosis in the past.
(6) a doctor finds other reasons of which the child should not take the vaccination.
Need to Consult with Doctor Before Taking Vaccination “If and When …”
(1) a child is treated for a heart, kidney, liver, or blood diseases.
(2) a child had abnormal symptoms that could be allergic reactions such as becoming feverish, getting rashes or hives, within the two days following a previous vaccination(s).
(3) a child has previously had a convulsion.
(4) a child has previously been diagnosed to have immunodeficiency syndrome or a child whose close relative has congenital immunodeficiency syndrome.
(5) a child who is allergic to ingredients of eggs, antibiotics, or stabilization agents and etc which are used to culture the vaccine in the manufacturing process.
(6) In case of a BCG vaccination, a child who is suspected to be infected by tuberculosis or, having long contact with the family member who is having tuberculosis.
General Precautions After Having Vaccinations
(1) Carefully observe your child or make sure to be able to contact a doctor at the vaccination site for 30
minutes after vaccinations. Sudden side effects can occur within 30 minutes.
(2) Side effects can occur within 4 weeks after a live-virus vaccination and within a week after an inactivated vaccination.
(3) Keep the injected area clean. Your child can take a bath but do not scrub the injected area.

(4) Your child should avoid strenuous exercise on the day of a vaccination.

Yang harus diisi lengkap yang menggambarkan kesehatan anak dan inform concern immunisasi:

Jika diterjemahkan kurang lebih sebagai berikut:

Pertanyaan Saat Imunisasi

Suhu Tubuh:… C

Pada jam: am/pm

L ( ) P ( )

Nama:

Alamat :

Tanggal Lahir:

Nama orangtua/wali:

Pertanyaan:

1. Apakah Sudah membaca penjelasan tentang imunisasi hari ini?

Ya/Tidak

2. Pertanyaan Seputar perkembangan bayi

Berapa berat saat lahir:…. gr

Apakah ada kelainan saat lahir?

Apakah anda mencatat perkembangan bayi /regular cek-up

Ya/Tidak

Ya/Tidak

Ya/Tidak

3. Apakah ada kekhawatiran tentang kesehatan bayi anda hari ini

Jika ada, silahkan tulis disini:………………………

Ya/Tidak

4. Apakah bayi anda diare?

Ya/Tidak

5. Dalam satu bulan terakhir ini apakah bayi anda sakit?

Nama Penyakit:………

Ya/Tidak

6. Dalam satu bulan terakhir, apakah bayi anda ada kontak dengan seseorang yang menderita measles/rubella/chicken pox/mumps

Nama Penyakit:……….

Ya/Tidak

7. Apakah bayi anda pernah kejang-kejang?

Hanya sekali ( ) Sering ( )

Pada usia berapa?…..

Apakah disertai demam/panas tinggi pada saat itu?

8. Apakah bayi anda pernah mengalami, dan sedang di-treat karena kondisi berikut: kogenital abnormal, jantung, kidney, liver, brain,nerve, kelainan imunitas,epilepsi, atau hal lainnya?.

Nama Penyakit:…..

Apakah dokter yang sedang menangani penyakit tersebut menyetujui akan diberikan imunisasi hari ini?

Ya/Tidak

Ya/Tidak

9. Apakah bayi anda mengalami bintik-bintik atau reaksi tertentu (alergi) setelah menerima obat atau makan makanan tertentu?

Ya/Tidak

10. Apakah bayi anda pernah di-diagnosa congenital immunodeficiency

11. Apakah bayi anda pernah diberi imunisasi berikut. (lingkari)

BCG, POLIO, MEASLES, RUBELLA,CHICKEN POX, DPT, DT (diphteria/tetanus), LAINNYA

12. Sebulan terakhir ini apakah pernah menerima imunisasi?

Nama imunisasi:…..

Ya/Tidak

13. Apakah bayi anda pernah sakit setelah diimunisasi?

Nama penyakit:……

Ya/Tidak

14. Apakah ada di antara anggota keluarga yang mengalami sakit setelah diimunisasi

Ya/Tidak

15. Dalam 6 bulan terakhir, apakah bayi anda menerima transfusi darah atau inokulasi Gamma Globulin?

Ya/Tidak

16. Apakah bayi anda pernah sakit ini: Measles, rubella, chicken pox, mumps, pneumonia, atau atopic dermatis?

Ya/Tidak

17. Apakah punya pertanyaan seputar imunisasi hari ini?

(Jika ada silahkan konsultasi dengan dokter dahulu)

Ya/Tidak

Terjemahan bebas by:ummuthoriq dari darma wanita okayama

Setelah blanko di atas diisi lengkap, kemudian dokter akan memeriksa secara obyektif bayi/anak yang akan diimunisasi satu persatu meskipun penyelenggaraan imunisasi dilakukan secara massal.

suasana imunisasi massal saat akan diperiksa dokter:

MORE...

Guideline Differences

I. Vaccinations recommended in Japan but not  in the United States

a. Tuberculosis
b. Japanese Encephalitis

II. Japanese guidelines do not include the following vaccinations that
ARE recommended in the United States:

a. hepatitis B
b. HIB (haemophilus influenzae type B)
c. chickenpox (varicella)

However, Japan does note that the following vaccinations are optional,
but available:

"Optional vaccinations (Charged):  Influenza, Mumps, Chickenpox, B-type Hepatitis"
Aside from these differences, the timetables for the common
vaccinations are similar. The DPT guidelines are almost the same. The
Polio guidelines are different, with the U.S. requiring 3 shots early
(as opposed to 2 in Japan) and one at 4-6 years old, whereas Japan
makes no recommendation of a Polio vaccine beyond 18 months.

For measles and rubella , the U.S. recommends a booster shot at 4-6
years old, whereas Japan just recommends 1 shot between about 1-2
years.

The differences in these guidelines are primarily due to the varied
risks of disease spread in these two different regions. The inclusion
of TB and Japanese Encephalitis vaccinations in Japan are primarily
because there is a greater risk of spread of these diseases in that
country.

TubercuIosis

"The number of cases of tuberculosis (TB) is decreasing compared to
past years, but still nowadays it is the biggest infectious disease in
Japan. If it is not detected in time there is a great possibility that
family and acquaintances may be infected."
TB is less of a threat in the United States, and because of the
potential risk of side effects from the vaccine, it has not been
included in the recommended guidelines. The same can be said for
Japanese Encephalitis, which is primarily isolated to the region.

Similarly, hepatitis B, haemophilus influenzae and chickenpox are more
prevelant in the U.S. than in Japan and therefore warrant
recommendation.

It was noted by one source that Japan changed the start time of
vaccinating for DPT from 3 months to 2 years because of a potential
correlation between the vaccine and SIDS.

<<Japan changed the start time for vaccinating from 3 months to two
years and straight away their SIDS rate plummeted? "Delay of DPT
immunisation until 2 years of age in Japan has resulted in a dramatic
decline in adverse side effects. In the period of 1970-1974, when DPT
vaccination was begun at 3 to 5 months of age, the Japanese national
compensation system paid out claims for 57 permanent severe damage
vaccine cases, and 37 deaths. During the ensuing six year period
1975-1980, when DPT injections were delayed to 24 months of age,
severe reactions from the vaccine were reduced to a total of eight
with three deaths. This represents an 85 to 90 percent reduction in
severe cases of damage and death." Raymond Obomsawin, M.D.>>
This policy change may have been related to this study in Japan:

"In a study from Japan, immunizations (DPT, DT, or BCG) were given to
61 children with a history of febrile seizures or epilepsy, who had
not had a seizure for one year. Following immunizations there was a
significant increase in "epileptic spikes" in post-vaccine
electroencephalograms as compared with those done preceding
vaccines.(9)"

The updated U.S. recommendations continue to suggest that the DPT
vaccination be administered earlier.

The U.S. specifically notes that there in no connection between
vaccinations and SIDS.

"Several studies have demonstrated no association between receiving
infant immunizations and SIDS."

www. rumahkusorgaku.wordpress.com

http://wanitaokayama.tripod.com/id55.html

http://dokterearekcilik.wordpress.com/2008/07/23/jadwal-imunisasi-2008/

 

 

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2 Komentar »

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  1. Wah lengkap banget, bisa buat bahan kalo ada pasien dari Jepang :)

  2. I always used to study piece of writing in news papers but now as I am a user of web thus from now I am using net for content,
    thanks to web.


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