Tanya -Jawab seputar Gigi Anak yang memerlukan Perawatan Orthodontik

Juli 26, 2008 pukul 6:33 am | Ditulis dalam gigi dan mulut anak | 18 Komentar

Perawatan orthodontik di kalangan masyarakat identik dengan perawatan untuk merapikan gigi. Bnyak orang tua yang mulai resah ketika melihat pertumbuhan gigi geligi anaknya yang tampak tidak beraturan atau tidak rapi. Berikut ini seputar tanya jawab tentang rawat orthodontik pada anak-anak:

What Is The Ideal Age For Treatment?

In many cases, orthodontic treatment is best done after the development of the adult teeth (10-14 years old). However, we like to see children when they are around 7-8 years old. There are a couple of main reasons for this:

1. Certain problems are best sorted out at this stage. For example; very prominent teeth can lead to teasing at school and the teeth are more likely to be damaged during sport and play. We can use an appliance at this young age to harness any available growth to improve the facial appearance.

2. Other problems that are best treated early include children who have some of the upper teeth trapped inside the lower teeth (at the back or front of the mouth), and those with very mild irregularities of the teeth. Intervention at an early age will almost certainly make any later treatment easier and more successful. In a small proportion of cases, it may eliminate the need for future treatment entirely.

3. At 8 years of age, it is possible to predict, with a reasonable degree of precision, the future orthodontic needs of an individual. This does give time to prepare financially for treatment.

Q: How can I tell if my child needs braces?
A: It’s not always easy for parents to tell if their child has an orthodontic problem. Here are some signs or habits that may indicate the need for an orthodontic examination:
• Early or late loss of baby teeth
• Difficulty in chewing or biting
• Mouth breathing
• Thumb sucking
• Finger sucking
• Crowded, misplaced or blocked out teeth
• Jaws that shift or make sounds
• Biting the cheek or roof of the mouth
• Teeth that meet abnormally or not at all
• Jaws and teeth that are out of proportion to the rest of the face
If any of these apply to your child, please be sure to make an appointment with our office – we can do a thorough evaluation, and together we can decide on the best course of treatment for your child.

Q: What age should my child have an orthodontic evaluation?
A: The American Association of Orthodontists (AAO) recommends an orthodontic screening for children by the age of 7 years. At age 7 the teeth and jaws are developed enough so that the dentist or orthodontist can see if there will be any serious bite problems in the future. Most of the time treatment is not necessary at age 7, but it gives the parents and dentist time to watch the development of the patient and decide on the best mode of treatment. When you have time on your side you can plan ahead and prevent the formation of serious problems.
Q: What Causes Crooked Teeth?
A: Crowded teeth, thumb sucking, tongue thrusting, premature loss of baby teeth, a poor breathing airway caused by enlarged adenoids or tonsils can all contribute to poor tooth positioning. And then there are the hereditary factors. Extra teeth, large teeth, missing teeth, wide spacing, small jaws – all can be causes of crowded teeth.

Q: How Do Teeth Move?
A: Tooth movement is a natural response to light pressure over a period of time. Pressure is applied by using a variety of orthodontic hardware (appliances), the most common being a brace or bracket attached to the teeth and connected by an arch wire. Periodic changing of these arch wires puts pressure on the teeth. At different stages of treatment your child may wear a headgear, elastics, a positioner or a retainer. Most orthodontic appointments are scheduled 4 to 6 weeks apart to give the teeth time to move.
Q: Will it be Uncomfortable?
A: When teeth are first moved, discomfort may result. This usually lasts about 24 to 72 hours. Patients report a lessening of pain as the treatment progresses. Pain medicines such as acetaminophen (Tylenol) or ibuprofen (Advil) usually help relieve the pain.

Why is it important to have orthodontic treatment at a young age?
A: Research has shown that serious orthodontic problems can be more easily corrected when the patient’s skeleton is still growing and flexible. By correcting the skeletal problems at a younger age we can prepare the mouth for the eventual eruption of the permanent teeth. If the permanent teeth have adequate space to erupt they will come in fairly straight. If the teeth erupt fairly straight their tendency to get crooked again after the braces come off is diminished significantly. After the permanent teeth have erupted, usually from age 12-14, complete braces are placed for final alignment and detailing of the bite. Thus the final stage of treatment is quicker and easier on the patient. This phase of treatment usually lasts from 12 – 18 month and is not started until all of the permanent teeth are erupted.
Doing orthodontic treatments in two steps provides excellent results often allowing the doctor to avoid removal of permanent teeth and jaw surgery. The treatment done when some of the baby teeth are still present is called Phase-1. The last part of treatment after all the permanent teeth have erupted is called Phase-2.
What are the advantages of beginning orthodontic treatment early?
A: Children who begin a course of orthodontic treatment fairly early (say by age 7 or so), gain several benefits, including:
• Guiding jaw growth
• Lo
wered risk of trauma to protruded front teeth
• Correcting harmful oral habits
• Improved appearance and self-esteem
• Guiding permanent teeth into a more favorable position
Improvement in the way lips meet
Once we have evaluated your child’s orthodontic needs, we can more clearly decide if these benefits will apply to your child’s treatment.
Q: What is preventive orthodontic treatment?
A: Preventive orthodontic treatment is intended to keep a malocclusion (“bad bite” or crooked teeth) from developing in an otherwise normal mouth. The goal is to provide adequate space for permanent teeth to come in. Treatment may require a space maintainer to hold space for a primary (baby) tooth lost too early, or removal of primary teeth that do not come out on their own to create room for permanent teeth.
Q: What is interceptive orthodontic treatment?
A: Interceptive orthodontic treatment is performed for problems that, if left untreated, could lead to the development of more serious dental problems over time. The goal is to reduce the severity of a developing problem and eliminate the cause. The length of later comprehensive orthodontic treatment may be reduced. Examples of this kind of orthodontic treatment may include correction of thumb- and finger-sucking habits; guiding permanent teeth into desired positions through tooth removal or tooth size adjustment; or gaining or holding space for permanent teeth. Interceptive orthodontic treatment can take place when patients have primary teeth or mixed dentition (baby and permanent teeth). A patient may require more than one phase of interceptive orthodontic treatment.
Q: What is comprehensive orthodontic treatment?
A: Comprehensive orthodontic treatment is undertaken for problems that involve alignment of the teeth, how the jaws function and how the top and bottom teeth fit together. The goal of comprehensive orthodontic treatment is to correct the identified problem and restore the occlusion (the bite) to its optimum. Treatment can begin while patients have primary teeth, when they have a mix of primary and permanent teeth, or when all permanent teeth are in. Treatment may consist of one or more phases, depending on the nature of the problem being corrected and the goals for treatment.
Orthodontic care may be coordinated with other types of dental treatment that may include oral surgery (tooth extractions or jaw surgery), periodontal (gum) care and restorative (fillings, crowns, bridges, tooth size enhancement, implants) dental care. When finished with comprehensive treatment, the patient must wear retainers to keep teeth in their new positions.
Q: What is a space maintainer?
A: Baby molar teeth, also known as primary molar teeth, hold needed space for permanent teeth that will come in later. When a baby molar tooth is lost early, a space maintainer will hold the space until the permanent tooth comes in.
Q: Why do baby teeth sometimes need to be removed?
A: Removing baby teeth may be necessary to allow severely crowded permanent teeth to come in at a normal time in a reasonably normal location. If the teeth are severely crowded, it may be that some un-erupted permanent teeth (usually the canine teeth) will either remain impacted (teeth that should come in, but do not), or come in to a highly undesirable position. To allow severely crowded teeth to move on their own into much more desirable positions, sequential removal of baby teeth and permanent teeth (usually first premolars) can dramatically improve a severe crowding problem. This sequential extraction of teeth, called serial extraction, is typically followed by comprehensive orthodontic treatment after eruption of permanent teeth has brought about as much improvement as it can on its own.
After all the permanent teeth have come in, the extraction of selected permanent teeth may be necessary to correct crowding or to make space for necessary tooth movement to correct a bite problem. Proper extraction of teeth during orthodontic treatment should leave the patient with both excellent function and a pleasing look.
Q: How can a child’s growth affect orthodontic treatment?
A: Orthodontic treatment and a child’s growth can complement each other. A common orthodontic problem to treat is protrusion of the upper front teeth. Quite often this problem is due in part to the lower jaw being shorter than the upper jaw. Upper teeth may also be the primary cause of the protrusion if they stick out too far. While the upper and lower jaws are growing, orthodontic appliances can be beneficial in reducing these discrepancies. A severe jaw growth discrepancy may require orthodontics and corrective surgery after jaw growth has been completed, although this is rare.
Q: What kinds of orthodontic appliances are typically used to reduce the severity of jaw-growth problems?
A: A process of dentofacial orthopedics (guiding the growth of the face and jaws) with orthodontic appliances may be used to correct jaw-growth problems. The decision about when and which appliances to use for this type of correction is based on each individual patient’s problem. Some of the more common orthopedic appliances include:
• Headgear: This appliance applies pressure to the upper teeth and upper jaw to guide the direction of upper jaw growth and tooth eruption. The headgear may be removed by the patient and is usually worn 10 to 12 hours per day.
• Fixed functional appliance: The appliance is usually fixed (glued) to the upper and lower molar teeth and may not be removed by the patient. By holding the lower jaw forward, it reduces the protrusion of the teeth while the patient is growing and helps bring the teeth together. The appliance can help correct severe protrusion of the upper teeth.
• Removable functional appliance: This removable appliance holds the lower jaw forward and guides eruption of the teeth into a more desirable bite while helping the upper and lower jaws to grow in proportion to each other. Patient compliance in wearing this appliance is essential for successful improvement; the appliance cannot work unless the patient wears it.
• Palatal Expansion Appliance: A child’s upper jaw may be too narrow for the upper teeth to fit properly with the lower teeth (a crossbite). When this occurs, a palatal expansion appliance can be fixed to the upper back teeth. This appliance can markedly expand the width of the upper jaw. For some patients, a wider jaw may prevent the need for extraction of permanent teeth.
Q: Can my child play sports while wearing braces?
A: Yes, but we advise wearing a protective mouth guard while riding a bike, skating, or playing any contact sports, whether organized sports or a neighborhood game. We’ll be happy to recommend a specific mouth guard.
Q: Will braces interfere with playing musical instruments?
A: Playing wind or brass instruments, such as the trumpet, will clearly require some adaptation to braces. With practice and a period of adjustment, braces typically do not interfere with the playing of musical instruments.
Q: Why does orthodontic treatment time sometimes last longer than anticipated?
A: Estimates of treatment time can only be that – estimates. Patients grow at different rates and will respond in their own ways to orthodontic treatment. We have specific treatment goals in mind, and will usually continue treatment until these goals are achieved. Patient cooperation, however, is the single best predictor of staying on time with treatment. Patients who cooperate by wearing rubber bands, headgear or other needed appliances as directed, while taking care not to damage appliances, will most often lead to on-time and excellent treatment results. Keeping your child’s appointments at the scheduled interval is very important, as well.
Q: What is patient cooperation and how important is it during orthodontic treatment?
A: Good “patient cooperation” means that the patient not only follows my instructions on wearing appliances as prescribed and tending to oral hygiene and diet, but is also an active partner in orthodontic treatment.
Successful orthodontic treatment is a “two-way street” that requires a consistent, cooperative effort by both the myself and the patient. To successfully complete the treatment plan, the patient must carefully clean his or her teeth, wear rubber bands, headgear or other appliances as prescribed, avoid foods that might damage braces and keep appointments as scheduled. Damaged appliances can lengthen the treatment time and may undesirably affect the outcome of treatment. The teeth and jaws can only move toward their desired positions if the patient consistently wears the forces to the teeth, such as rubber bands, as prescribed.
To keep teeth and gums healthy, regular dental check-ups must continue during orthodontic treatment.
Q: What is two-phase treatment?
A: Two-phase treatment simply means that the treatment is carried out in two stages. The first is the interceptive orthodontic phase (see above) and the second is the comprehensive orthodontic phase (see above).
Q: Some of my children’s friends have already started treatment, while other friends are waiting until they are older. Why is there a difference in treatment?
A: Each treatment plan is specific for that child and his/her specific problem. In some cases, children mature early (e.g.: get their permanent teeth early) and in some cases early treatment is indicated to prevent a more severe problem from occurring. Together, we will decide the most optimum treatment plan. If you have questions, please feel free to ask me anytime.
Q: My child has an allergy to nickel. Can my child still have orthodontic treatment?
A: Yes, there are appliances available which are nickel-free. Please be sure to let us know of any allergies your child has.

Emergencies and Care
Q: What do we do if there is an orthodontic emergency?
A: Several kinds of “emergencies” can happen when you’re undergoing orthodontic treatment. Here are the most common ones we encounter, and how you can best handle the situation:
Q: A Bracket is Knocked Off
A: Brackets (see diagram below) are the parts of braces attached to teeth with a special adhesive. They are generally positioned in the center of each tooth. If the bracket is off center and moves along the wire, the adhesive has likely failed. Call our office, and we’ll determine the best course of action.
If the loose bracket has rotated on the wire and is sticking out, attempt to turn it back into its normal position and call us to schedule an appointment to have it reattached. You may wish to put orthodontic wax around the area to minimize the movement of the loose brace. If you are in pain, please call and tell us. If you are not in pain, this is not a true emergency. Please call our office at your earliest convenience to schedule an appointment to reattach the brace to the tooth.
Remember, brackets can become loose as a result of chewing on hard, sticky or chewy foods or objects, as well as from physical contact from sports or rough housing.
Be sure to wear a protective mouth guard while playing sports!
Q: The Archwire is Poking
A: If the end of an orthodontic archwire (see diagram below) is poking in the back of the mouth, attempt to put wax or cotton over the area to protect the cheek. Call our office to schedule an appointment and have that clipped.
In a situation where the wire is extremely bothersome and the patient cannot be seen in a timely manner, the wire may be clipped with an instrument such as fingernail clippers.
Reduce the possibility of swallowing the snipped piece of wire by using folded tissue or gauze around the area to catch the piece you will remove. Use a pair of sharp clippers and snip off the protruding wire. Relief wax may still be necessary to provide comfort to the irritated area.
Q: “Ligature Wire” is Poking Lip or Cheek
A: Use a Q-tip or pencil eraser to push the wire so that it is flat against the tooth. If the wire cannot be moved into a comfortable position, cover it with relief wax. (See “Irritation of Cheeks or Lips” below for instructions on applying relief wax.) Be sure to let us know at your next visit.
Q: Loose Brackets, Wires or Bands
A: If the braces have come loose in any way, call our office at your first opportunity, so that plans for repair can be made. Save any pieces of your braces that break off and bring them with you to your repair appointment.
Q: Irritation of Lips or Cheeks
A: Sometimes new braces can be irritating to the mouth. A small amount of orthodontic wax makes an excellent buffer between the braces and lips, cheek or tongue. Simply pinch off a small piece and roll it into a ball the size of a small pea. Flatten the ball and place it completely over the area of the braces causing irritation. If possible, dry off the area first, as the wax will stick better. The patient may then eat more comfortably. If the wax is accidentally swallowed it’s not a problem. The wax is harmless.
Q: Mouth Sores
A: People who have mouth sores during orthodontic treatment may gain relief by applying a small amount of topical anesthetic (such as Orabase or Ora-Gel) directly to the sore area using a cotton swab. Reapply as needed.
Q: Discomfort
A: It’s normal to have discomfort for three to five days after braces or retainers are adjusted. Although temporary, it can make eating uncomfortable. Encourage soft foods. Have the patient rinse the mouth with warm salt water. Over-the-counter pain relievers, acetaminophen or ibuprofen, may be effective.
Q: Lost Ligature (Rubber or Wire)
A: Tiny rubber bands known as elastic ligatures (see diagram), are often used to hold the archwire into the bracket or brace. If a ligature is lost, it’s usually not an emergency. Let us know at your next visit.

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18 Komentar »

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  1. Anak saya sdh berumur 11bln tp kok blm tumbuh gigi jg ya?apa asupan gizinya kurang dan apa tdk berpengaruh terhdp perkmbgnnya?

    • gigi pertama yang tumbuh pd bayi (gigi susu) memang rata2 muncul usia 6- bulan. Namun itu bukan harga mati. Adakalanya perkembangan anak berbeda satu dg yg lain, termasuk dalam hal ini, tumbuh gigi. Jika putera ibu sampai usia 1,5 tahun belum MULAI tumbuh sama sekali, ibu disarankan untuk berkonsultasi dengan dokter gigi anak.
      Keterlambatan tumbuhnya gigi, tidak menghambat secara signifikan dengan pembelajaran makanan bayi. Saya juga sudah membuktikan dalam hal ini. Anak pertama saya mulai tumbuh gigi usis 12 bl, anak ke dua tumbuh gigi 1,5 tahun. Keduanya pd usia 1 th sudah dapat menerima “makanan keluarga”( Mulai MPASI 6 bl.). Gusi putera ibu cukup kuat untuk mengunyah makanan.
      Jadi, jangan khawatir ibu,jika tidak ada riwayat keluarga yg tidak mempunyai gigi, insya Allah gigi putera ibu akan tumbuh. Ibu hanya dianjurkan untuk memberikan rangsangan misal, dg finger food yg agak keras (misal buah dipotong),makanan lebih bertekstur. Apalagi sebentar lg putera ibu sudah 1 th. bisa mulai menerima makanan keluarga.
      Demikian ibu.terima kasih.

  2. Bismillah….

    Apakah gigi geraham itu permanen dari awal tumbuhnya? Atau geraham termasuk gigi yg kelak tanggal dan ganti dg permanen layaknya gigi susu? Kalau memang permanen dari awal tumbuhnya, bagaimana menjaga geraham anak agar tidak berlubang dg cepat? Yang mana sajakah yg termasuk gigi geraham?

    Sebelumnya syukron….

    • Sebelumnya mohon maaf jika ada ketidaktepatan saya menjawab karena saya kurang memahami pertanyaan ummu Raji.
      -Manusia dalam kehidupan gigi secara normal mengalami 2 fase gigi: periode gigi susu dan periode gigi permanen. Sedang pada PROSESnya mengalami 3 fase: gigi susu, gigi bercampur dan gigi permanen.
      – gigi permanen tumbuh menggantikan gigi susu.
      – untuk menjaga gigi agar tidak berlubang dengan cepat: rajin sikat gigi,flossing bila perlu, kontrol diet (misal tidak minum banyak mengandung gula saat akan tidur, terlalu banyak dan sering makan lengket dan manis), kunjungan drg secara berkala agar gigi di bersihkan karang giginya dan jika ada karies segera diketahui.
      “A baby’s first molars are not permanent teeth, and they will eventually fall out. When this happens, each first molar tooth will be replaced with an adult counterpart, known as a permanent first molar. This usually occurs when a child is between the ages of nine and eleven. First molars are the first permanent teeth to erupt in some children, although teeth called the incisors may appear first in other children.

      Even though a baby’s first molars are not permanent, they still require proper care. Baby teeth usually reserve mouth space for permanent teeth. In addition, they provide a healthy foundation against decay and infection when the permanent teeth come in. A permanent tooth may, for example, have dark spots on it if the baby tooth above it is diseased. Healthy first molars can also help children develop clear speech and maintain good nutrition.

      A first molar is typically categorized as either a first maxillary molar or a first mandibular molar. A maxillary molar is located on the upper jaw and is the second most common type of tooth to become diseased. On the other hand, the mandibular molar is located on the lower jaw. Mandibular molars can be the most common type of tooth to become infected.

      Since first maxillary and mandibular molars are particularly susceptible to disease, it is important to properly care for them. Generally, individuals should thoroughly brush their teeth twice each day. Flossing and controlling sugar intake are other ways to help prevent tooth infections. People should also regularly visit their dentists and hygienists for cleanings and check-ups.

      – untuk mana saja gigi geraham serta bahasan lebih lanjut tentang gigi susu dan permanen, silahkan dibaca:
      Demikian , semoga bisa dipahami. terima kasih

      • Jazakillahukhoironkatsiron…..alhamdulillah amat sangat membantu, afwan jika pertanyaannya malah membingungkan^^, sebab ana sendiri tak berapa tahu ttg penamaan2 gigi,alhamdulillah ukhti paham yg ana maksud. Ana ingin anak2 ana memiliki gigi2 yg sehat.


      • waiyyaki..
        alhamdulillah. semoga ibu sekeluarga mempunyai gigi dan rongga mulut yang sehat.
        jika ummu raji ingin tahu lebih banyak, bisa searching di internet. banyak sekali artikel yg bisa dibaca. Di blog saya ini pun (wordpress +multiply) ada cukup lumayan artikel tentang gigi dan gigi anak khususnya.
        Ok. terimakasih juga..

  3. salam hormat….. anak saya sudah berusia 3,5 thn namun hingga kini giginya baru tumbuh 2 buah yaitu gigi taring bagian atas… namun dia sudah dapat mengkonsumsi makanan yang agak keras… mohon petunjuk… secara fisik anak saya sehat dan sangat pintar serta lincah… kira kira apa penyebab dan penanganannya… terimakasih sebelumnya…

    • selamat malam Pak Hendra,
      Apakah gigi putera Bapak seperti poto pada link http://www.answers.com/topic/partial-anodontia-1 ini?Putera bapak kemungkinan mempunyai kondisi gigi yaitu oligodontia/partial anodontia. Biasanya ada hubungannya dengan riwayat keluarga. Untuk penyebab:

      Several environmental factors like virus infections, toxins and radio- or chemotherapy may cause missing of permanent teeth. However, most of the cases are caused by genetic factors. The heritability of congenitally missing teeth has been shown in many studies. The genetic factors may be dominant or recessive and it is obvious that in many cases multiple genetic (and environmental) factors are acting together. The importance of genetic factors is shown by appearance of multiple cases among relatives (familial clustering) and higher concordance in identical than in non-identical twins.

      Dominant inheritance of congenitally missing teeth has been shown both in hypodontia and oligodontia. However in both cases the amount and identity of missing teeth may vary between relatives. In hypodontia, the variability may extend to no teeth actually missing (“reduced penetrance”). The variability is probably caused by other genetic and environmental factors, and in some cases the etiology is analogous to multifactorial traits.

      An example of recessive inheritance is given by recessive incisor hypodontia (RIH). In this condition described by us, a recessive gene causes congenital missing of several incisors, including lower permanent incisors and often decidusous incisors, too) the inheritance is recessive.

      Lebih detail, silahkan di cermati : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypodontia
      dan untuk penjelasan dental gene : http://www.gfmer.ch/genetic_diseases_v2/gendis_detail_list.php?cat3=1441
      Penanganan gigi, ada beberapa solusi di antara nya: Prosthetic ,dental implant technology or dentures.
      Akan tetapi penanganan dilakukan terpadu, mengingat ada kondisi lain yang perlu di check. Jagan lupa untuk terus “membesarkan hati ” putera Bapak akan keadaan ini.
      Untuk bahan bacaan lain: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2853819/
      Demikian, semoga putera Bapak mendapat perawatan yang terbaik.
      Terima kasih

      • trimakasih saranya…. apabila ada perkembangan mohon mesi bersedia untuk memberikan info lainnya… salam hormat

      • persis seperti gambar di link tsb……

  4. miissii..
    saya mw nanya tentang gigi..

    gigi seri saya agk ke ats, jadi kelihatan tidak rata..
    gimna ya solusi nya biar bisa rata kembali..

    apakah saya harus pakai behel??

    • mari-mari,dik……..
      ya,solusinya dengan rawat orthodontik.
      akan tetapi…….tolong pertimbangkan juga, apakah kondisi gigi seri amat sangat mengganggu (terutama BUKAN faktor estetik)?
      Rawat orthodontik baiknya TIDAK hanya karena faktor estetik saja.Apalagi jika secara estetik tidak parah ,dalam hal ini misalnya tampak tidak rata sedikit. Jika dengan kondisi gigi sekarang,Mee sehat/tidak ada gangguan gigi dan mulut (karies dll), itu lebih diutamakan.Alias tidak perlu rawat ortho.

      Selain itu rawat ortho perlu waktu,kesabaran,biaya, kepatuhan dll. Ok, jika perlu konsultasi ke drg.

  5. dear…
    anakku 16 bln, tp blum ada satupun giginya yg numbuh. di gusi bwh memang terlihat putih tp gusi atas tidak ada warna putih sama sekali. apakah aq hrs ke drg atau memang itu hal yg umum ? terimakasih

    • ibu,
      tumbuhnya gigi susu memang sangat bervariasi. Usia putra ibu hampir dalam batas untuk kasus keterlambatan gigi susu tumbuh. Jadi masih dalam kasus normal.
      Pertanyaan ibu akan terjawab dalam link ini : http://www.drgreene.com/qa/baby-teeth.
      Untuk sementara ,sambil menunggu tumbuhnya gigi, sebaiknya ibu perhatikan juga pertumbuhan dan perkembangan yg mengikuti putra ibu, dan tentu saja untuk terus memberikan rangsangan untuk membantu pertumbuhan gigi.
      terima kasih.

  6. makasih lagi nih .. saya jadi tau banyak tentang perawatan gigi… 😉

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  9. You’ve got a some valuable ideas! Maybe, I ought to think of trying to do this on my own. Very much appreciated!

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