Ikan “masuk” DaPuR

September 17, 2010 pukul 8:05 am | Ditulis dalam Dapur, Ragam | 5 Komentar

Hmmmmm, teringat kebingungan saya saat memilih di katalog   jenis ikan di salah satu toko on line untuk keperluan dapur. Banyak sekali yang saya tak kenal. Gambar tampilannya pun tak memuaskan. Akhirnya saya cancel saja daftar menu ikan di deretan menu.

Sebelumnya saya hanya mengenal nama mereka dengan……..bandeng, bawal, emas,mujair, tuna..sampai gereh dan besek-an ,begitu orang jawa bilang :)Maka tak ayal lagi bingung akan muncul jika dihadapkan dengan nama ikan dengan gelar “internasional”😀

Akhirnya setelah putar puter, klak-klik sana-sini, alhamdulillah ,nemu dah. Dan saya tak bingung lagi untuk memilihnya.Bhkan saya mendapatkan informasi lebih dari yang saya cari.  Mari kita “lirik” bersama jika Anda menghendakinya..

eit, maaf (seperti biasa) saya masih meng copy paste aslinya.Yakin anda pandailah bahasa Inggris.Semoga yang sedikit ini bisa membantu dan ada manfaatnya.

1. Apa yang harus diketahui saat Memasak atau mengkonsumsi Ikan?

When preparing fish you want to be sure that the fish is handled properly to ensure it is safe to eat. There are several cooking methods that include baking, frying, and grilling, which all result in a little different taste for the fish when it is done cooking.

There is a countless number of fish and seafood recipes for appetizers, salads, entrées, and grilled entrées that you will enjoy preparing for friends and family. The fish cooking times will vary according to the size and type of fish.

A fish is a cold-blooded, backboned, aquatic animal and there are many types of fish that live in every region of the world. Fish are harvested for their highly nutritious meat and for the oil that is extracted and used as a food product or as an ingredient for a wide variety of commercially prepared products. There are numerous fresh water and salt-water fish species that are harvested throughout the world.

2. Mengenal  Beberapa Species ikan:

Freshwater Fish

Fish Type Description
Catfish A type of scaleless, freshwater river fish distinguished by the whisker-like barbels that extend from its mouth. It is very popular because of its mild taste and because of the limited number of bones. It is easily poached, baked or fried.
Grayling A small freshwater fish that is similar to a brown trout. It has an excellent flavor, but they are hard to find in most food stores and fish markets. The average weight is about one pound or less, but some may be double that. The grayling does not keep very well after it is caught, so it must be eaten as soon as possible. It is best when broiled or grilled.
Pickerel A fresh water fish in the pike family of fish. It is the smallest of the pike family, ranging from two to three pounds. It is a lean, low-fat fish with firm white flesh when cooked.
Pike A fresh water fish that is found in the Great Lakes and other large lakes in the upper United States and Canada. It is a family of fish, which includes the pickerel, pike and muskellunge. The pickerel is the smallest, averaging 1 1/2 to 3 pounds, the pike ranging form 3 to 10 pounds, and the large muskellunge, generally referred to as muskie, ranging from 10 to 35 pounds. Muskellunges have gotten as big as 60 pounds. The pike is known for its lean, low fat, firm flesh, which is yellow when raw but flaky white when cooked. One disadvantage of the pike is that it is bony. Pike is available fresh or frozen, and whole or in fillets or steaks. Pike can be prepared by most any cooking method.
Rainbow Trout A freshwater fish with a firm textured flesh that has medium to high fat content. It is one of the most popular varieties of trout throughout the world. Most commercially raised Rainbow trout average 8 ounces but they can grow up to 50 pounds. Rainbow trout can be found fresh and frozen, whole and in fillets, and is generally fried when cooked. They can also be grilled, broiled, baked, steamed and poached.
Sunfish A North American freshwater fish, which consists of many varieties that are noted for their unique shapes and brilliant colors. The varieties include white and black crappies, and several types of bass, such as largemouth, smallmouth, redeye, rock, and spotted.
Tilapia

A name used to refer to several species of warm, freshwater fish that are commonly bred in commercial operations to be processed for food. Although, Tilapia is a freshwater fish, it is also found living in saltwater. They cannot survive in water less than 60°F. Tilapia grown in warmer waters will often reach a weight of 3 to 4 pounds, while the majority produced for food in commercial ponds will weigh approximately 2 pounds or more. Since they reproduce well and can be raised in controlled ponds, they can be processed faster, brought to market quicker and provide fresher meat than other varieties that require longer harvesting, processing and distribution time. While the outer flesh may range in color from black with white shading to pinkish-red, the meat of this fish is white, firm in texture and mildly sweet in flavor, very similar to catfish. It can be prepared by baking, broiling, grilling, frying, poaching, or steaming.
Trout

A round freshwater fish, which is found worldwide. There are several varieties of trout, including rainbow, brook, and lake. Rainbow trout, known for the pinkish red stripe on its sides, is the most popular variety with American consumers. The flesh of trout ranges from white to pink or orange in color and has a mildly rich taste and a tender, flaky texture. Trout is moderately lean and can be prepared by frying, broiling, grilling, or baking. It can be found fresh or frozen and is most often sold whole. If not available, salmon or whitefish can be substituted.
Walleye Pike

A type of freshwater fish that is not a pike at all, but is a member of the perch family. Walleyed Pike has firm, flaky flesh that is mildly flavored and is suitable for many cooking methods including baking, frying, broiling, grilling, and poaching. It is found mainly in freshwater lakes of the northern United States and adjoining areas of Canada.
Whitefish

Whitefish Filets

A type of fish related to the salmon that is found in bodies of fresh water in North America. The flesh has a mild flavor, but it has a high fat content. Whitefish is suitable for baking, frying, grilling, broiling, and poaching.
Zander A species of fish living in slow flowing rivers, lakes and ponds, which are sought as both a sport and food fish. Although the Zander may grow to a weight of over 20 pounds and is prized as a good fighting fish, it is generally caught for use as a food source ranging in weight from 4 to 8 pounds. Similar in appearance and flavor to a Walleye, the Zander provides a firm white meat that flakes nicely when cooked. Most common in Europe where it is also known as the Pikeperch, this fish is often baked, fried or grilled and then served as a main dish or as a meat ingredient for salads.

Migratory Fish

Migratory fish mature in salt water but migrate to fresh water to spawn.

Fish Type Description
Eel A type of fish that is characterized by a smooth, snakelike body. They are found in fresh water rivers and lakes in Europe and North America, but migrate to the southwestern Atlantic for spawning. The flavorful meat of the eel is popular in Europe and is especially popular in Japan and other Asian countries. It is not as popular in the United States even though it was a favorite among people during colonial times.
Salmon

Salmon Filets

An anadromous fish, which means that the fish was born in freshwater, then migrates to saltwater to mature and then returns to freshwater to spawn. Popular to serve as a main dish, Salmon provides a tender, flaky-textured meat with a mild to rich flavor, depending on the species. It is a fish that is rich in omega-3 fatty acids, which help to reduce LDL (bad) cholesterol. Salmon can be prepared in most any manner, such as smoked, baked, broiled, grilled, fried, or poached. Salmon originated in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans but are now grown in most locations where there is cold, protected seawater.
Shad The largest member of the herring family, it has a slight oiliness to it and a mildly sweet flavor that resembles pompano and salmon. Shad is an anadromous fish, which means that it is born in freshwater and then migrates to saltwater to mature and then returns to freshwater to spawn. This fish is hard to fillet because of its many small bones so it may be desirable to purchase it already filleted, otherwise, it can be steamed or baked at a low temperature for more than six hours, until the bones disintegrate. Female shad is more in demand than male because they are fatter and larger, and because they contain the desired roe.
Smelt An anadromous fish, meaning it matures in saltwater but migrates to freshwater to spawn. It is a very small silver colored fish, which has a tint of green coloring on its back. The best season for smelt generally starts in September and runs into May. They are generally found ranging in size over 3 inches to under 8 inches. Smelt are sold, cooked and eaten whole. They have a rich, oily flesh with a mild flavor. They are highly perishable so if they are not to be eaten immediately after they are caught, they are quickly frozen.
Striped Bass (Rockfish) A lean saltwater fish with flesh that is tender, white, and mildly sweet. The striped bass is a saltwater fish that migrates to fresh water to spawn. It is a versatile fish that can be prepared in many ways, but when grilling, it is best to place the fish in a fish basket because it does not hold together well. Trout, grouper, snapper, or monkfish can be used for substitutes if striped bass is not available. Striped bass is also known as “rockfish.”
Sturgeon An anadromous fish, meaning it matures in saltwater, but migrates to fresh water to spawn. It averages in weight at 55 to 60 pounds, but some specimens grow much larger. The fish roe from the sturgeon is considered the “true caviar” and is probably more important than its flesh. The sturgeon has a rich, high fat flesh that is very firm, similar to meat, and is delicately flavored. On a limited basis, fresh sturgeon is available whole (less than eight pounds), or cut into steaks or chunks. Most of the sturgeon caught in U.S. waters is smoked.

Saltwater Fish

Fish Type Description
Ahi (Yellowfin Tuna)

Ahi (Yellowfin Tuna) Steak

The Hawaiian term for one of the types of tuna that has a light pink flesh and a slightly strong flavor. It is a very popular fish in Hawaii and Japan where it is often eaten raw. This fish is also known as yellowfin or bigeye tuna.
Alaska Pollock A saltwater fish that is a member of the cod family and sometimes referred to as bigeye pollock or walleye pollock. It has a slender body that is olive green to brownish in color on its back and its sides are silvery. Its flesh is firm and white which flakes nice when cooked. The Alaska Pollock should not be confused with the Atlantic Pollock, which is more oily with a darker flesh that has a fishier taste. Alaska Pollock is great for baking, broiling, sautéing, frying, steaming, or poaching. It is the most widely used fish in the fast food market where it is used to make fish n’ chip fillets, fish patties for sandwiches, and ground fish products. Alaska Pollock fillets are also delicious enough to be served in a nice restaurant. A large quantity of the Alaska Pollock that is harvested today is the used to make surimi, which is imitation seafood.
Albacore Tuna A variety of tuna that is very flavorful and has the lightest colored flesh of all the different species of tuna. It is generally more expensive than other varieties and the canned version is often called “white tuna.” The meat is tender and flaky when cooked and like all tuna, it is fairly high in fat content.
Anchovy


Anchovies


White Anchovies

A small saltwater fish belonging to the herring family that is native to the Mediterranean Sea and the English Channel. Typically no more than 6 inches in length, the anchovy is green colored as a fresh fish, but changes to a grayish black color when cured. Similar to a sardine in size, this fish is used often in the same way as a sardine, being served in appetizers or as an ingredient to season and garnish a variety of foods, such as salads, soups, pasta, or pizza. Anchovies are processed into filets and preserved by curing them in salt and packing in olive oil, by pickling the filets in vinegar and oil (referred to as “boquerones” in Spain), or by preserving the filets as fresh fish. When cured, they become dark black in color and salty in flavor. Anchovies packed fresh in oil (olive or sunflower) and wine vinegar are referred to as white anchovies, retaining more of their white silvery color. White anchovies are fresher in age, more perishable and may not last long after being purchased. The white anchovy filets however, provide less of the salty taste present with salt cured anchovies.
Cod A common type of saltwater fish that has flaky white meat and a mild taste. It is one of the most popular types of fish and is used in many processed fish products, such as fish sticks or fish cakes. It is also a variety of fish that is often blended with other types of white fish to produce the fish stick products or other food items containing fish. Haddock and hake make good substitutions for cod.
Flounder

A saltwater fish that has flaky white flesh when cooked and a mild flavor. It is one of the varieties of flatfish that are characterized by their flat oval bodies, horizontal swimming style, and eyes that are on one side of their head. If flounder is not available, other flatfish varieties including sole, halibut, dabs, and plaices can be substituted.
Fluke


Fluke – Front


Fluke – Back

A type of flatfish that is a member of the flounder family. The skin on the top side is grayish brown to black with the underside white, typical of flatfish which lay on their underside and have two eyes on their top side or left side when considered in a vertical, rather than flat position. Ranging in size from 3 to 5 pounds, fluke is available as a whole fresh fish or in fillets. The fillets will weigh from several ounces to a pound each, with the skin removed. The meat is white and can be broiled or baked.

The fillet meat on the topside or dark side is always thicker than the meat on the bottom side or light side. The flesh is smooth, white and firm in texture, which cooks nicely and flakes easily. The fluke is also known as a summer flounder, a flattie, and a lefteye flounder. A similar type of fish from the same family is the winter flounder that is considered a right-eyed fish. Like the fluke, this fish has similar textured meat that is flavorful and good for baking or broiling.

Flying Fish An ocean fish that commonly jumps out of the water and glides airborne over the surface for a distance of 10 to 20 feet. Small in size (12 to 15 inches generally), the Flying Fish has large oversized pectoral fins and a split tail with a larger surface area on the lower tail section than on the upper tail section. Some species have both large pectoral fins and smaller pelvic fins that serve to enable longer gliding distances. The meat of the Flying Fish is firm, tender and white in color, providing a good tasting meat that can be baked, fried, grilled, steamed, or served in stews. It is best to eat Flying Fish soon after they have been caught, since they do not keep well for shipping long distances.
Grouper

A fish found in the warm waters of the Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean, belonging to the sea bass family. They may weigh as much as several hundred pounds, but the average weight caught for commercial use is 15 pounds or less. Grouper have a firm white flesh when cooked and are suitable for boiling, poaching, or baking. The strong tasting skin should be removed before the fish is cooked.
Haddock A white fish found in the colder waters of northern oceans that is very much like cod, but is smaller. It may be used in any other recipe that calls for white fish such as cod or flounder. Haddock can be used in recipes that require the fish to be fried, baked, poached, or broiled.
Halibut A saltwater whitefish that has, mildly flavored, flaky flesh. The most desirable halibut with the best flavor usually weigh less than 10 pounds. Halibut is a member of the flatfish family and can be used as a substitution in recipes that require other types of flatfish such as flounder and sole.
Hapuka Grouper A member of the Grouper family of ocean fish, Hapuka is large fish that reaches 4 to 5 feet in length. Thick-bodied, the Hapuka has an outer skin that can vary from silver and blue to a pink, brown and silver combination. Most often found in deep waters, this fish is common in the waters around New Zealand and Australia. Filets from the Hapuka are firm, white, very flavorful, and somewhat similar to a bass. The Hapuka may also be referred to as a Hapuku or a New Zealand grouper.
Herring

Herring Filets

A type of saltwater fish found in the colder waters of the North Atlantic. There are many varieties of herring and most of them grow to no more than a foot in length. They are sold fresh, smoked, packed in salt, or pickled.
John Dory A fish with delicious, mildly flavored meat that is native to Europe. The excellent flavor and texture of the John Dory are in direct opposition to its appearance. It has a flat, curved shaped body and an unusual looking head that is large and spiny. Pan-frying, baking, broiling, and grilling are some of the cooking methods used to prepare the fish.
Kingfish, Mackerel A variety of the mackerel fish family, which are members of the tuna family. It is most often found in warmer ocean waters, such as from the Carolina coast in the U.S. to Brazil in South America. This fish is favored as a game fish, because of its fight and size that may range up to 100 pounds. Similar to other species of Mackerel, this fish has an oily, soft, pale flesh, that is sometimes pink, which when cooked, becomes flaky and firm with an off-white color. The rich flavor will vary according to the oiliness of the fish, which changes with the seasons and with different species, but the flavor is often compared to the Atlantic mackerel. Steaks or fillets of mackerel are available fresh or frozen and can be substituted with tuna, marlin, or swordfish in many cases. This species may also be referred to as king mackerels or kings. This type of mackerel is often confused with another species named Kingfish, which is a member of the drum family of fish. There is a southern kingfish and a northern kingfish, both drum species, which are not related to the tuna or mackerel family.
Lingcod A saltwater game fish from the North Pacific. The lingcod has lean, flaky white meat that is mild flavored and is available in fresh or frozen fillets. To check the fish for doneness, use the tip of a sharp knife and cut through the thickest part of the fillet. If the fish has been properly cooked, the meat will appear opaque but will still be moist.
Mackerel

A saltwater fish, related to the tuna, with an oily, soft, pale flesh, that is sometimes pink, which when cooked, becomes flaky and firm with an off-white color. The rich flavor will vary according to the oiliness of the fish, which varies with the seasons and with different species. Steaks or fillets of mackerel are available fresh or frozen and can be substituted with tuna, marlin, or swordfish in many cases.
Mahi Mahi (Dolphin Fish)

Mahi Mahi Filets

A warm water fish that has a medium textured dark flesh that turns brown when cooked. It has a good flavored flesh, but it is high in fat content. Mahi Mahi is easy to prepare by grilling or broiling and is a good alternative to swordfish. To check the fish for doneness, use the tip of a sharp knife and cut through the thickest part of the fillet. If the fish has been properly cooked, the meat will appear opaque but will still be moist. This fish is also known as Dorado (the Spanish name) or Dolphinfish.
Mako Shark

Mako Shark Steaks

One of the many species of shark, it is found in the moderate and tropical waters of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans and can grow to be 1000 pounds within a period of five to six years. Mako sharks must be bleed out immediately after catching and put on ice. The shark’s blood contains urea, which breaks down to ammonia after the fish dies. This can give the shark meat an ammonia taste and smell. Mako shark is a fairly inexpensive fish with ivory-pink meat that has a dense texture, a mild flavor and contains a moderate amount of fat. Often compared to swordfish, its flavor is enhanced with the addition of spicy flavoring when cooking. If not available, most recipes can have the Mako shark substituted with a meaty fish, such as tuna, catfish, marlin and swordfish. When selecting Mako shark, smell the fish first to determine if there is an aroma of ammonia. If the ammonia smell is slight, the meat should be alright, but if it has a strong ammonia aroma, the fish should not be purchased. A slight ammonia smell can be eliminated by soaking the fish in an acidic solution of water and lemon juice or vinegar. Cover the fish with cold water and add 1/2 teaspoon of lemon juice or one tablespoon of vinegar for each pound of shark you are soaking. Allow the shark to soak in the refrigerator for at least 4 hours. When the ammonia smell is strong, it is an indication that the shark was not properly handle when first caught, has not been properly stored, or that it is no longer fresh. Soaking the shark at this point will not eliminate the ammonia smell or taste.
Monkfish A strange-looking fish that is firm textured and has delicious tasting meat, similar to that of lobster. In Europe, the monkfish has been treasured for many years, but until the later part of the 1970’s, American fisherman would dispose of the monkfish. Americans now keep the monkfish, but only for the meat from the tail, whereas Europeans use the entire fish. It can be prepared using several different cooking methods, such as poaching, roasting, sautéing, or grilling. If monkfish is not available, it may be substituted with grouper, tilefish, or lobster. When cleaning, be sure the fish is thoroughly skinned, paying particular attention to the center ridge. Skin remaining on the ridge will cause the fish to be tough when cooked.
Mullet


Mullet Filets

A firm textured fish that has both white and dark meat which provides a somewhat nutty flavor. One of the most popular species for food dishes are the striped or silver mullets. In the Southern U.S., the flesh and roe of the mullet are both very popular, but most of the roe harvested in the U.S. goes to Taiwan and the Middle East. As with most fish, mullet can be baked, broiled, grilled, fried, and poached.
Ocean Perch
(Rosefish, Redfish)
A type of rockfish found along the North Atlantic coasts of North America and Europe. Their coloring is a bright orange-red and they can weigh up to 5 pounds but are most often 1 1/2 to 2 pounds when caught for market. Its flesh has a mild sweet flavor and medium firm texture. The larger Ocean Perch have a coarser texture. Generally ocean perch are quite tender and can be used in any recipe that calls for a white fleshed fish. Ocean Perch is also referred to as Rosefish or Redfish. It should not be confused with the Redfish found in the Gulf of Mexico, which are a member of the drum family.
Opakapaka (Pink Snapper) A variety of fish that is common to the Pacific Ocean, most notably the Hawaiian Islands. Opakapaka, also referred to as opaka-paka, pink snapper or crimson snapper, is a fish with a light brown outer skin and a light pink colored flesh that is firm in texture. Generally, the fish is available from 1 to 10 pounds in weight and is prepared whole or filleted. It can be steamed, baked, grilled, sautéed, or poached providing a delicate and sweet flavor.
Orange Roughy

Orange Roughy Filets

A low-fat saltwater fish from New Zealand and Australia that has a white flesh with a firm, moist texture and a mild sweet taste. Orange roughy can be prepared by baking, steaming, broiling, frying or poaching.
Porgy (Scup) A lean fish with a coarse texture and delicate flavor, consisting of a large family of fish found in temperate and tropical waters all over the world. Porgy has a lot of small bones, so when selecting, it is best to buy larger specimens because they have a better meat to bone ratio, making the bones easier to remove. Also known as sea bream or scup.
Redfish (Red Drum) A low-fat fish that is a member of the drum family, found along the southeastern coast of the United States and in the Gulf of Mexico. Smaller redfish, weighing less than ten pounds, have a sweet, mild flavor and a moist flaky texture. Larger fish have a tendency to have a coarser flesh. This fish is also known as red drum, channel bass, spottail bass, red bass and puppy drum. If redfish is not available, other members of the drum family can most often be used, such as black drum, or weakfish.
Red Mullet A fish that is not actually a mullet but a member of the goatfish family. It has mild flavored, firm white meat and few bones. Characteristic of other goatfish, the red mullet has long chin barbels that look like the whiskers on a goat, which they use to locate food. Sea bass or trout can be used as a substitution for red mullet.
Red Snapper

A lean, round saltwater fish with flaky white flesh which has a firm, moist texture and a mild, sweet flavor. It can be prepared by broiling, baking, steaming or poaching. Halibut, trout or whitefish may be used as a substitution in most recipes.
Rock Cod A lean saltwater fish that has a white flaky flesh and a mild taste. It is available in fresh or frozen fillets.
Sardine

A small, young, saltwater fish with soft edible bones, found in the Mediterranean. There is other small, young saltwater fish found that are called sardines but they are not true sardines, such as the Pacific and Atlantic herring, blueback herring and sprat. The sardine is a silver color and has a rich flavored flesh that is dark colored. Fresh sardines should be put on ice immediately and eaten as soon as possible, but in the United States they are hard to find fresh. They are generally found canned in olive oil, soy oil or water. Sardines are popular as an appetizer and are good broiled or grilled.
Scrod

Scrod Filets

A young codfish, which is a round saltwater fish. Its meat has a tender, flaky texture with a mild flavor. Scrod can be prepared using several methods, such as baking, steaming, broiling and poaching. If scrod is not available, substitute halibut or haddock.
Sea Trout A round saltwater fish that is moderately lean and has a moist, flaky textured flesh. It has a sweet, mild flavor and can be broiled, baked or fried. Sea trout is also known as “weakfish” and can be substituted by cod, haddock or bluefish if necessary.
Sheepshead Porgy A fish that is a member of the porgy family, which is only found in the Atlantic Ocean. Its profile and teeth structure resemble that of a sheep. The flesh of this porgy has a firm, flaky texture with a sweet flavor. The sheepshead porgy is no relation to the sheepshead found in the Pacific Ocean or the freshwater drum, which is known as sheepshead. Tilefish or black drum can be used as a substitute for sheepshead porgy.
Skate A saltwater fish, belonging to the ray species of fish, which is found in temperate waters throughout the world. It is part of the ray family and is related to the shark. Skate has a flat body with triangle-shaped wings on each side of its body. The wings, which are the pectoral fins, are the edible, boneless meat of the fish. Mildly sweet in flavor, the meat is semi-firm texture and although it appears to be somewhat layered or partitioned, it does hold together well when cooked or sautéed. When preparing, occasionally the skate meat will emit a smell similar to ammonia. This odor, which will not affect the meat, can be removed by soaking the meat in an acidulated water bath for a short period of time. If not available, catfish, shark (same family as skate) or sturgeon can be substituted.
Snapper A saltwater fish that consists of many species. Some of the common species are red snapper, gray snapper, yellowtail snapper, and mutton snapper. The most popular species is the red snapper, which is known for its red eyes and dark pink skin. The red snapper has lean flesh that has a firm texture. Smaller snapper is available whole, but the larger fish are generally only available in steaks or fillets. Snapper can be prepared using almost any cooking method including frying, broiling, grilling, baking, steaming, and poaching.
Sole

Sole Filet

A saltwater fish found in the Atlantic off the U.S. and European coasts. There are five species found in the Atlantic waters near the U.S., but none are particularly good for eating. The best-known sole for eating, Dover sole, is in the Atlantic near Europe. It has lean, white flesh with a delicate flavor and firm, flaky texture. There are other edible species found in Europe, but none is as popular as the Dover sole. It is generally available in fillets, which are fresh or frozen. Sole is suitable for frying, broiling, baking, or poaching. Flounder, plaice, or whitefish can be substituted if sole is not available.
Swordfish

Swordfish Steak

A popular saltwater fish found in warm and tropical waters. The fish’s upper jaw resembles a sword and is about a third of its length. They can grow to be as much as 1000 pounds but are generally caught before reaching 250 pounds. The moderately lean flesh of the swordfish may be white, orange or pink, but when cooked they all turn the same color and have the same mild flavor and meaty texture. Fresh swordfish is available from late spring through most of the summer. It is available frozen throughout the year. Swordfish is good when broiled, baked, grilled, steamed or poached.
Tilefish A saltwater fish found in tropical or moderately temperate waters throughout the world. They feed on mollusks, crab, shrimp, and squid and can be as small as 2 pounds and as large as 50 pounds. It has white, low-fat flesh with a firm texture and a mildly rich flavor resembling lobster and codfish. Tilefish can be found fresh or frozen, and in fillets or steaks. The smaller fish are also available whole. Baking, broiling, grilling, frying, steaming, and poaching are suitable methods for cooking tilefish.
Tuna A saltwater fish found in temperate and tropical waters worldwide. The flesh is tender and flaky with a meat like texture and is very flavorful. Some species of tuna will grow to be 1500 pounds, but fresh tuna sold at market will generally not weigh more than 150 pounds. Tuna is sold fresh or frozen, in fillets and steaks, which can be cooked by broiling, baking, steaming, or poaching. Canned tuna is commercially available, packed in water or oil.
Weakfish A round saltwater fish that is moderately lean and has a moist, flaky textured flesh. It has a sweet, mild flavor and can be broiled, baked or fried. Weakfish is also known as “sea trout” and can be substituted by cod, haddock or bluefish if necessary.

3. Kandungan Merkuri pada Ikan

All fish contain trace amounts of mercury. For most people, the small amounts in fish do not pose a health problem. Some fish, however, contain high amounts of mercury — enough to damage a fetus or newborn. That is why pregnant and nursing mothers must be very careful about the amounts and types of fish they eat. Young children should also avoid eating fish high in mercury. According to the FDA, pregnant women and small children (under 6) should not eat more than 2 servings of fish each week — and should only eat those fish with low mercury content .

Mercury levels can build in adults too — eventually becoming harmful to health. High mercury levels can cause permanent damage to the kidneys and brain.

4. Tips memilih Ikan

Knowing how to choose fresh fish or seafood is a vital skill for a seafood cook. Unless you caught the fish yourself, you really have no way of knowing exactly how fresh it is. But buying fresh fish is easy if you know what to look for.

Important – When selecting fresh fish or seafood, follow these simple steps:

Only purchase fish and seafood at reputable markets.

Don’t buy anything more than one day or at most a couple of days old. Avoid fish or seafood that has been in a display case for extended periods, even if it is on ice. If you are unsure, ask if there is more in the back. If there isn’t fresh fish or seafood available, buying fish or seafood that has been frozen at sea is your next best alternative.

The flesh of fresh fish should always be firm and should adhere firmly to the bone. Fresh fish should be firm and the flesh should spring back when touched.

Smell the fish. It should have a “fresh sea” aroma to it – NO STRONG ODORS. If it has a strong “fishy” smell, it is not fresh and not for you. Ask at the counter when the fish came in.

If you are shopping at a grocery buy fresh fish or seafood on your way out of the store, take it directly home, and cook it within 24 hours. Take along a cooler to keep it cool going home.

Keep the fish as cold as possible until you are ready to cook it, store seafood in the coldest part of your refrigerator. When you ready to cook the fish, rinse it with cold water.

Here are tips on choosing fresh fish.

Whole Fish

  • Look for bright, clear eyes. The eyes are the window to a truly fresh fish, for they fade quickly into gray dullness. Dull-eyed fish may be safe to eat, but they are past their prime.
  • Next look at the fish. Does it shine? Does it look metallic and clean? Or has it dulled or has discolored patches on it? If so, it is marginal.
  • Smell it. A fresh fish should smell like clean water, or a touch briny or even like cucumbers. Under no circumstances should you buy a nasty smelling fish. Cooking won’t improve it.
  • Look at the gills. They should be a rich red. If the fish is old, they will turn the color of faded brick.

Fish Fillets

  • Look for vibrant flesh. All fish fade as they age. If the fillet still has skin, that skin should look as pristine as the skin on an equally good whole fish – shiny and metallic.
  • Smell it. The smell test is especially important with fillets. They should have no pungent aromas.
  • Is there liquid on the meat? If so, that liquid should be clear, not milky. Milky liquid on a fillet is the first stage of rot.
  • If the fishmonger lets you, press the meat with your finger. It should be resilient enough so your indentation disappears. If your fingerprint remains, move on.

Live Things

The best way to choose a live fish or crab or lobster is to look for, well, life. Is it scampering around in its tank? Swimming happily? Or is it sulking in a corner or hanging motionless and panting? If so, don’t buy it. Lobsters and crabs starve themselves in tanks and often can be almost empty inside when you crack open one that’s been imprisoned in a tank for weeks.

Your best bet is to make friends with the fishmonger and find out when the new shipments arrive. Plan on being there to meet it and buy then. You will be rewarded for your extra effort.

Shellfish

Buy only at the finest fish markets. These are the places where turnover is so rapid you can be assured of fresh mussels, clams or oysters. You may still get a dead one, but the ratio will be far lower.

What is a dead one? Shellfish are sold alive, so they should react to you. Put them on the countertop and back away for a moment. Then tap the shell: It should close tighter than it was. Oysters are a little tough to do this with, but clams and mussels will definitely react. You can also tell a dead shellfish after you’ve cooked them all. Dead ones do not open after being cooked. Throw them away.

Scallops, a Special Case

Scallops are almost always sold shucked, so what you are looking for are “dry packed” scallops, meaning they are not shipped and stored in brine. Those scallops you see wallowing in milky ick? Leave them be. Better to buy frozen, vacuum-sealed scallops, which are perfectly good by the way, than an inferior wet-packed scallop.

Shrimp

This one is easy. Buy them whole and frozen. Whole because the shell protects them from the rigors of being frozen without losing too much moisture, and frozen because shrimp cook – and rot – very rapidly.

Should you be near a shrimping region, or have access to truly magnificent fresh shrimp, by all means buy them. Head on if possible. Why? Because head-on shrimp stay moister. Remember: Nothing says boring like a dry, overcooked shrimp.

Everything I said about shrimp applies to crayfish, too. Unless you can get them live, in which case follow the instructions for lobsters or crabs.

Squid or Octopus

These are almost always sold to the wholesaler pre-frozen, so you should buy them frozen. Both squid, commonly known as calamari, and its more richly flavored cousin the octopus freeze exceptionally well.

Again, if you can buy squid and octopus – not to mention cuttlefish – fresh, do it! They are rare treats even at fine fish markets and should be appreciated as such. Like finfish, you should look first at their eyes, which should be clean and bright.

Fresh fish or seafood is marketed in a number of ways. The best way to buy fish for preparation ease, is in fresh fillet or steak form. Fillets are normally bone free and steaks are usually cut into serving portion sizes making your prep time shorter.

Whole Round – Means that the fish are exactly as they came from the water. The eyes should be clear, the gills bright red, and the skin shiny with tightly clinging scales. Allow one pound per servings.

Dressed or Pan Dressed Fish – Fish that have scales and entrails removed, and usually also with head, tail, and fins removed. Allow one-half pound per serving.

Steaks – Ready-to-cook widthwise slices of large fish. Allow one-third to one-half pound per serving.

Fillets – Ready-to-cook sides of fish cut lengthwise form the backbone. Allow one-half pound per serving.

5. Bagaimana cara menyimpan ikan.

Here’s what you need to know to have top-quality fish for months:

  • Air is your enemy. Any air that touches your fish will destroy it. It’s that simple. So you must prevent air from contacting the fish by vacuum-sealing it, glazing it or wrapping it tightly — this is in order of preference.
  • If you catch a lot of fish or buy lots of fresh fish from the market, buy a vacuum sealer. They’re worth every penny.
  • If you choose not to do so, you can glaze the fish by dipping them in cold water and putting them on a sheet pan in the freezer. Let that water freeze, then repeat the process several more times to get a 1/4 inch thick ice glaze on the fish. You can then put your glazed fish into a plastic bag for storage.
  • You can wrap your fish in plastic wrap, then put them into a plastic bag, but I don’t really recommend this for more than a few days. It just is not as effective at preventing moisture loss and freezer burn as the other methods.

Remember that the weather in a freezer is just fine for many fish. What do I mean? Think about cold-water fish such as cod or haddock: They spend their lives in water that is only a few degrees above freezing, so putting them in the freezer will not be as radical a change for the meat as it would be for, say, a steak or a chicken. This means you will get less of a loss in flavor with many frozen fish than you would with frozen terrestrial meats.

How long can you freeze your fish?

Never longer than 6 months. After that, you will notice a serious decline in quality. Fatty fish, such as salmon or trout, go down hill even faster: Don’t freeze them longer than 3 months.

And some fish should never be frozen. These are the fattiest ones, the bluefish, herring, mackerel and sardines. You can glaze them, but they still decline in quality a lot. If you find youself with a surfeit of bluefish — this happens a lot — vacuum-seal them and know that you will be making fish cakes with them down the road; that’s all they’ll be good for.

When you thaw your frozen fish, do it gradually. Never put them in the microwave to thaw!! Let them thaw in the fridge or in cold water. Thawing at room temperature is also a bad idea.

6. Menyiapkan dan Beberapa cara memasak ikan:

Microwaving Fish

These salmon fillets will take about five minutes to cook in a microwave oven.

The microwave is a great place to cook fish when you’re in a hurry. Cooking time will depend on the strength of your microwave and on the thickness of the fish. For reference, microwaving 2-inch-thick salmon steaks takes about 5 minutes. It’s better to underestimate than overestimate cooking times. Remember that fish will continue cooking for a few minutes even after it’s come out of the microwave.  This demonstration of Cold Salmon with Creamy Mustard Sauce shows that you can get a head start on dinner by zapping the salmon for five minutes in the morning, then refrigerating it to eat later in the day.  Salmon is delicious eaten hot or cold.

Baking Fish

Here are baked cod fillets with salsa.

This is another simple cooking method that works for almost any kind of fish. The rule of thumb is to cook it four or five minutes per half-inch of thickness, or eight to 10 minutes per inch of thickness. In this demonstration of baked cod with breadcrumbs, the thick fillets take about 25 minutes to cook. The fish can be seasoned, marinated or cooked in a sauce, as startcooking.com demonstrates in this preparation of Baked Cod with Salsa.

Pan Frying Fish


Pan-fried Kona Kampachi

Pan frying works with all kinds of fish, but especially with milder fish.  It’s fine to use fish fillets that have a strip of skin on the side. Depending on the kind of fish you’re using, you may want to dredge or coat the fish in flour, for a crispy finish. This will also give a bit more flavor and substance to lean varieties of fish.

But there’s no need to dredge meatier kinds of fish. Startcooking.com’s tutorial on Pan-Fried Fish with Lemon and Parsley shows this simple and quick method. Fans of fish sticks won’t go near the frozen kind after trying our recipe for homemade fish fingers (shown below) – these are so easy and so out of this world!

Fish fingers get a coating of flour and breadcrumbs before being pan-fried.

Broiling Fish

When you set the oven to broil, the heat comes directly from above, browning the top of the fish nicely. Put the fish skin-side down on a broiling pan, or on foil-lined baking sheet four to six inches from the broiler. It can take anywhere from two minutes to 10 minutes to cook, depending on the thickness. If the fish is very thick, it may need to be flipped halfway through.

Poaching Fish

This is a good method for lighter, more delicate kinds of fish. The fish gets GENTLY simmered in liquid in a pan on the stove for a few minutes. The key is not to let the liquid boil because this will cause the fish to come apart. Cooking For Engineers offers a very helpful tutorial on poached fish.

Fish in foil or parchment (en papillote)

Fish  en papillote may sound like a fancy cooking method, but it’s actually one of the easiest ways to cook your whole meal all in one go! You simply place your fish, with some chopped vegetables, on foil or parchment paper, then fold the foil/paper over the ingredients and close up the edges so that it’s like a sealed packet. Cook at 400F for 15 to 20 minutes — the steam inside the packet cooks the food.


The meaty texture of swordfish does well on the grill.

Grilling Fish

Our post on Grilling Fish 101 covers the basics of cooking fish on an outdoor grill. In short, grilling works best on thicker, fattier fish like salmon, swordfish, mahi mahi and tuna. Although you can grill leaner, flakier fish, you’ll need to use a fish basket or grill it on foil.

Eating  fresh fish on a weekly basis is recommended by health experts.  If you are still having difficulty  choosing fresh fish and seafood, just ask the person at the fish counter for some advice.

sources:

– startcooking.com

– recipetips.com

– fishcookingabout.com

– whatcookingamerica.net

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